Rehabilitation of patients after myocardial infarction
The stages of rehabilitation
Physical rehabilitation consists of three periods:
- Stationary – is carried out in the cardiology or the intensive care unit of the hospital. It includes in-patient treatment after acute myocardial infarction and continued until clinical recovery.
- Post-hospital – is carried out in the clinic, a specialized rehabilitation center or sanatorium. Starts from the day the patient discharged from the ward and lasts until return to work.
- Support – takes place in a cardiology or medical-sports dispensary. At this stage there is the maintenance and further development of physical disability.
The success and speed of recovery depend on the extent of infarction, the nature of complications during the acute period, as well as the severity of heart failure. Patients considered four functional classes. For I-III class classifies patients with uncomplicated infarction: small focal, large-focal, transmural. To class IV are patients with severe complications after a massive heart attack myocardium: heart failure, angina at rest, conduction disturbances and rhythm, thromboendarterectomy. Complications of a heart attack are divided into three groups: minor disorders, moderate and severe.
The main tasks of exercise therapy in stationary phase include:
- Improving the mental condition of the patient.
- Improvement of the peripheral circulation.
- Prevention of disorders in the gastrointestinal tract, development of pneumonia, arthritis of the left shoulder.
- Reduced muscle tension.
- Improvement of respiratory function.
- The improvement in cellular nutrition.
- Increase tolerance to stress.
Rehabilitation program are under the patient belongs to a functional class. It consists usually of four stages of activity, each of which provides certain loads.
- In the first stage. Turn sideways, use of bedside table and the ship, eating, sitting, sitting on the bed dangling his feet for about 10 minutes 2-3 times a day.
- The second stage. Sitting down on the bed for 20 minutes up to 3 times a day, transplanting on a chair, and toileting.
- The third stage. Walking around the ward, eating at the table, remaining seated, without limitation, the exit to the corridor, walking up the stairs (one flight).
- Fourth tier. Walking down the corridor, climb one floor, self-service, taking a shower. The walk from 500 to 1000 meters with acceleration, veloergometry.
On the post-hospital stage of rehabilitation before the patient and physician are as followstasks:
- Recovery of the heart.
- Prevention of coronary heart disease.
- Increase tolerance to stress and the achievement of maximum physical activity.
- Social, domestic, professional adaptation.
- Improving the quality of life.
- Lower doses of medication.
Rehabilitation in sanatoria and the rehabilitation centres is to conduct group sessions. The complex includes exercises for all muscle groups, and breathing exercises in attention and coordination. Exercises are performed sitting and standing, with weights from 1 to 5 kg, on the equipment and items. Complete complex of relaxation exercises and static breath. During the day shown walking, sports, cross-country skiing. Swimming classes start from being in warm water without movements of the limbs, then move to swimming and exercises in water.
Nutrition after a heart attack
- Low-calorie diet.
- Replace animal fats to vegetable.
- Avoid foods rich in cholesterol. These include animal fats and fatty dairy foods. Should refuse such products as ham, bacon, dumplings, sausages, wieners, etc.
- Exception of salt, which contributes to increased blood pressure. Pressure surges negatively affect the heart.
- The diet recommended to include more fruits and green vegetables.