Prolapse the flaps of the mitral valve of the heart
Adopted a separate classification of mitral valve prolapse at the level of regurgitation that may not correspond to vbuhanie folds:
- When first-degree jet reaches the valves.
- The second – the blood that reaches to the middle of the left atrium.
- When third – stream reaches the posterior wall of the atrium.
Minor prolapse is found in 20% of healthy people and usually does not progress. When mitral valve prolapse with regurgitation 1 degree, with or without symptoms and complaints, as a rule, are absent. In this case, the defect does not lead to poor circulation, do not pose a threat to health and requires no treatment. A person can live a long life and not even be aware of his presence.
Why is there?
Mitral valve prolapse is more often congenital. But there may be other reasons for its occurrence.
Develops when weakened from birth connective tissue from which heart valve is. In this case, faster folds are stretched and lengthened the chord holding them. The result is a mitral valve SAG and tightly closed. Prolapse can develop in such genetic diseases as a disease Ehlers-Danlos and Marfan syndrome.
In the case of congenital prolapse usually has no symptoms. To believe that it is dangerous to health is impossible, therefore treatment is not prescribed. Such a phenomenon is, rather, regarded as a feature of the body, not as pathology.
The development of this anomaly on the background of other diseases is observed infrequently. The mitral valve prolapse cause the following diseases in which disrupted the structure of the valve apparatus:
- Rheumatic fever, or rheumatism. The development of genital prolapse is associated with inflammation of the connective tissue. Mostly seen in children, usually after tonsillitis or scarlet fever with a subsequent complication of acute rheumatic fever. Edema, redness and pain in the large joints, morning stiffness.
- Myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease – the causes of prolapse in older people. The appearance of it due to the poor blood supply of the papillary muscle and rupture of the chords holding the sash and regulating their work. Typically, patients come to the doctor with complaints of shortness of breath, fatigue, pain in the heart.
- Congenital malformations of the heart.
- Hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy.
- Degenerative andinflammatory diseases of the myocardium and endocardium.
- Dehydration (dehydration).
- Pulmonary hypertension.
- Endocrine pathology, such as hyperthyroidism.
- Injuries to the thorax. It is possible that the rupture of the chordae, which leads to the prolapse. In this case, requires mandatory treatment, or prognosis can be bad.
When the diagnosis of "mitral valve prolapse" carry out instrumental investigations. Decisive diagnostic features identified by echocardiography and auscultation.
When listening to detect a systolic murmur, accompanied by systolic clicks.
The most effective method for diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse is a cardiac ultrasound which gives the full picture: the amount of work thrown into the left ventricle the blood, and the degree of vbuhanie sash.
If the bulging flaps of the mitral valve is associated with coronary heart disease or myocardial infarction, because the complaints are:
- shortness of breath at low loads;
- paroxysmal pain in the heart that cropped nitroglycerin;
- sensation of paralysis of the heart.
If the cause of mitral valve prolapse has been chest trauma, the patient has:
- frequent palpitations;
- failures of the heart;
- shortness of breath at low loads;
- sometimes a cough with sputum pink.
Complications of mitral valve prolapse are rare. They are possible in case of acquired and congenital hard defect. These include:
- Mitral valve insufficiency, in which a significant amount of the blood flows back into the left atrium. Characterized by shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, General weakness. Treated by surgery: performed valve replacement or plastic reconstruction.
- Infective endocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart valve. The appearance of it is due to the fact that the valve becomes less resistant to the action of microbes in the development of prolapse. In this complication, the body temperature rises, there is pain in the joints, weakness, palpitations. This disease is considered severe and treated in a hospital.
- Heart rhythm disturbances is manifested by disruption of the heart, vertigo, weakness, in rare cases, fainting. Prescribed antiarrhythmic medications.
Usually, when mitral valve prolapse does not require any restrictions with regard to physical education and sport. Auscultation in the form of permitted exercise, but should avoid jumping and running. In severe regurgitation and the presence of disorders in the heart there are contraindications to physical stress: in this case, shown exercise therapy with individual selection of exercises.
The forecast in the case of mitral valve prolapse, as a rule, favorable. Most often there is prolapse of 1 or 2 degrees with slight regurgitation. Symptoms and health problems not usually, most people with this syndrome in the treatment and observation is not needed.